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The Early Christian Attitude to War

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Page 267

INDEX

 

Achatius, 202, 210

Acts of John, 51, 196, 226

Acts of Paul, 164, 180 f

Acts of Peter, 164

Acts of Thomas, 93, 166

'Adamantios' (Dialogus de Recta Fidei), 63, 176 f, 190, 218-220

'Alternative Service' of Christians, 103, 117, 134-136, 142 f

Amantius, see Getulius

Ambrosius of Milan, 257

Arnpelius, 236

Ananias and Sappheira, 221

Apocalyptic Wars, 35, 179-184 (see also Jewish War of 67-71 A.D.)

Apolinarios of Hierapolis, 229-231

Apollonius, martyr, 77 f, 196

Apostolic Constitutions, 125, 155, 259

Arelate (or Arles), Canons of, 157, 256 f, 260

Aristeides, 50, 73

Arkhelaos, Disputation of, with Manes 260

Armenians, fight against Daza, 241

Arnobius, Adversus Nationes, 54 f, 65 f, 83, 157, 167, 197, 202, 210 f, 246

Athanasios, St., 246, 256 f

Athenagoras, 50, 64, 75 f, 104, 196, 197 f, 214, 223

Augustinus, St., 129, 257

Aurelius, Marcus, see Marcus

Backhouse and Tyler, Early Church History, 8, 223

Bacon, B. W., 39

Barbeyrac, Jean, 6, 139

Barclay, Robert, 6

Bardesanic Book of the Laws of the Countries, the, 52, 64 f, 79

'Barnabas,' the so-called 'Epistle of,' 71, 172, 185

Ballou, Adin, 8

Basileides of Alexandria, 226, 233

Basilios, St., 261

Besas of Alexandria, 227, 237

Bestmann, H. J. 214, 222, 254

Bethune-Baker, J. F., The Influence of Christianity on War, 9, 22, 23, 42, 99, 102 f, 104, 107, 114 116, 119, 125, 138, 151, 172, 235, 252f, 254

Bigelmair, A., 10, 17, 24, 98, 116, 127, 131, 139, 146, 150, 214, 222, 230, 239, 240, 250, 253 f, 256-260

Bigg, C., 249

Brace, Loring, Gesta Christi, 8

Bushnell, Horace, 35, 197

 

Calov, J. G., 6 f

Carlyle, A. J., 211

Casuistry, 1 f, 116 f

Cassianus, martyr, 153

Celsus, 104, 125, 129 ff, 175, 185, 215, 231, 245, 256

Page 268 Centurion of Capernaum, 33, 112, 226, 228, 252

Chrysostom, St., 261

Clarkson, Thos., 7

Clemens of Alexandria, condemns war, 51; eulogizes peace, 64, 106; story of John and the Robber, 71 f; on treatment of wrongdoers, 78, 223; on persecution, 92 f; use of military analogies, 165 on Old Testament wars, 174 recognition of war, 205 f; permissibility of military service for Christians, 232 f

Clemens of Rome, 59, 71, 163 f, 172, 191, 196, 205; his so-called Second Epistle, 74

Clementine Homilies and Recognitions, etc., 53 f, 65, 83, 167, 197, 202, 208, 216-218, 224, 227

Codratius, martyr, 167

Commodianus, 53, 65, 82, 167

Constantinus, 192, 197, 203, 208 f, 225, 241-243, 256-262

Constantius, 149, 225, 238, 243

Cornelius, centurion of Caesarea, 17, A 97, 112, 178, 222, 224, 226-228, 252

Crucifixion of Jesus, 29, 38, 419 226, 228

Cunningham, Wm., Christianity and Politics, 9, 13, 57 f, 99, 107, 115, 125, 138 f, 255

Cyprianus of Carthago, condemns war, 52 f; commends patience, 65; on forgiveness of wrongs, 81 f; his probable attitude to military service, 147 f, 150, 168, 246, 256; his martyrdom, 93, 227; miscellaneous, 119, 151, 157, 167f, 177 f, 182, 192, 196, 202, 208, 210, 237

 

Dale, A. W. W., 156 f, 257

Dasius, soldier-martyr, 240

Daza, Maximinus, 95, 208 f, 241

Defence of others, 84-89

De Jong, K. H. E., 11, 17, 116, 140, 150, 239, 242, 243, 250, 256 f, 260 f

Dialogus de Recta Fidei, see 'Adamantios'

Dickens, Chas., Little Dorrit, quoted, 37

Didache, the, 70 f

Didaskalia, the, 53, 82 f, 95, 155, 167, 181, 189, 223, 227

Diocletianus, his reign and persecution, 94f, 149, 153 f, 169, 192, 224, 238-243

Diognetos, Epistle to, 73

Dion, proconsul of Africa, see Maximilianus

Dionusios of Alexandria, 93, 167, 197, 227, 237

Dymond, Jonathan, 7 f

 

Egnatius, see Laurentinus

Egyptian Church-Order, the, 120-125, 259

Eirenaios, on the 'ploughshare' prophecy, 61 f; on love for enemies, 76 f, 106; on the military triumph of Christ, 164 f; on Old Testament wars, 174; on war as a divine judgment, 191; on the divine origin of magistracy and the state, 198 f, 212; his recognition of war, 205; miscellaneous, 60, 196

Elkesai, Book of, 180

Elvira, see Illiberis

Epiphanios, 240

Eschatology, as affecting early Christian view of war, 44-46, 140 f, 250, 263 (see also Apocalyptic Wars)

Ethics, Christian, 1 ff

Page 269 Eusebios of Caesarea, 56 f, 63 f, 94 f, 167, 190, 192, 196, 204, 209, 224, 230 f, 238 f (references to merely narrative passages in the 'Church History' are not included here)

Eusebios of Laodicea, 227

 

Fabius Victor, father of Maximilianus, 150, 238

Ferreolus, soldier-martyr, 240

Forsyth, P. T., The Christian Ethic of War, 5, 115, 191

Fremantle, Canon W. H., 8

Fructuosus, martyr, 94, 167

 

Galerius (sometimes called Maximus), 95, 149, 238 f, 243

Gallienus, 238

Gass, W., 115

Getulius and Amantius, 106 f, 240 f

Gibb, J., 8, 257

Gibbon, Edward, Decline and Fall, 7, 92, 138, 150 f

Gore, Bishop, 23 f

Grane, W. L., 12

Gregorios of Nazianzus, 261

Gregorios Thaumatourgos, 53, 227

Grotius, Hugo, De Jure Belli ac Pacis, 6, 127, 138

Guignebert, Chas., 9 f, 104, 116, 139, 151, 205

Guizot, 138

Gwatkin, H. M., 141-143, 151

 

Hadrianus, 100 f, 195, 229

Halliday, J. A., 45

Hardy, E. G., 92

Harnack, Adolf, Militia Christi, 10 f, 13, 17, 39, 52, 97, 105, 114, 116, 118, 123, 127 f, 150, 152-154, 162, 165-167, 169, 173, 175, 184, 193 f, 205, 207, 209, 229 231, 233, 235-243,249 , 255-257, 260; Mission and Expansion of Christianity, 10, 17, 92, 97, 103 f, 133, 144, 152, 167, 209, 229, 231, 235, 237-241, 250, 254, 260

Hebrews, Epistle to the, 59, 171 f

Hefele, 102, 104, 156, 257

Herrmann, Wilhelm, 44-46

Hermas, The Shepherd of, 73 f, 214, 250

Hippolutos, condemns war, 52; on the peacefulness of Christians, 64; his book of Church regulations and its bearing on military service and magistracy, 119-128, 155, 246, 256; on the Jewish War Of 70 A.D., 186; miscellaneous, 166, 174, 181, 195 f

'Hippolytean Canons,' 119-128, 259

Hirst, F. W., 11

Holtzmann, H. J., 42, 99

 

Idolatry, in the army, etc., 105, 108, 111 f, 114 f, 131, 141, 149, 151-154, 156, 238-240, 245 f, 247 f

Ignatius, 60, 72 f, 92, 163 f

Illiberis (or Elvira), Canons of, 156, 225, 238

Inscriptions, 101, 236 f

Irenaeus, see Eirenaios

Isaiah, The Vision Of, 49 f, 179

 

James, son of Zebedee, his martyrdom, 90, 226, 228

James, Epistle of, 49, 69, 171

Jewish War of 67-71 A.D., 29 f, 98 f, 184-190, 193 f, 248

John the Baptist, 27, 32 f, 88, go, 112, 125, 174, 225 f, 228, 234, 252

John and the Robber, 71 f, 85 f

Julianus, Emperor, 260

Julius the centurion, 226

Julius, soldier-martyr, 240

Page 270 Julius Africanus, 206 f, 232

Justinus, condemns war, 50; on peace, 60 f; on love for enemies, 74 f, 102 f; use of military analogy, 164; on Old Testament wars, 172; on the wars of the future, 180; on the Jewish War of 67-71 A.D., 185; on state-coercion, 197; asks Emperor to punish pseudo-Christians, 223

 

Karpos, martyr, 50, 92

 

Lactantius, condemns war, 55 f; On the Christian treatment of wrongdoers, 83 f; on the outrages of soldiers, 95; on the illegitimacy of military service for Christians, 158-160, 168, 246, 256; on apocalyptic wars, 182; on the Jewish War of 67-71 A.D., 189 f; on the coercion of crime, 202-204, 223; recognition of war, 208 f; miscellaneous, 127, 167 f, 178, 192, 196 f (merely narrative passages from De mortibus Persecutorum are not included here)

Laurentinus and Egnatius, 147, 151, 237

Law-courts, Christian view and use of, 67, 81 f, 108, 111, 154-157, 159 f, 197-204, 222-225, 248, 255

Le Blant, 8

Lecky, W. E. H., History of European Morals, 8, 66, 144, 151, 258, 265

Licinius, 192, 204, 209, 241 f, 260

Lightfoot, J. B., 101, 230

Loisy, 42

Lucianus, martyr, 66

Lugdunum, martyrs of, 92

Luke, 163, 179, 185, 228

Luthardt, C. E., 23

 

Magee, Bishop, 23 f

Marcellus, soldier-martyr, 152 f, 167, 239

Marcianus and Nicander, soldier-martyrs, 240

Marcus Aurelius and his times, 17, 92, 105, 229-231, 245, 251

Marcus Aurelius Prosenes, 236

Marianus and Jacobus, martyrs, 93 f, 167

Marinus, soldier-martyr, 151 f, 238

Marius, supposed soldier of time of Hadrianus, 100 f

Markion and his School, 173 f, 181, 186, 191 f, 218-220

Martineau, James, 252

Martinus of Tours, St., 260

Maxentius, 95, 209, 241

Maximianus, 149, 153, 238 f

Maximilianus, 148-151, 238, 260

Maximinus, see Daza

Maximus, see Galerius

Mercier, Dr. Chas., 24 f

Methodios, 54, 66, 202, 208

Military Service, conditions of, in the Roman Empire, 16 f, 20, 247

Milman, Dean H. H., 115, 257 f

Milvian Bridge, 241, 258

Minucius Felix, 128, 166, 177, 186 f, 196

Montanism and Montanists, 118 f, 151, 181

Montanus and Lucius, martyrs, 93, 167

Mosaic Law, 21 f, 25, 29, 40, 80 f, 109, 111, 129 f, 137 f, 176 f, 218-220, 232

Mosheim, 258

Mullinger, J. B., 8, 100

Murder, 21, 57, 214

 

Nereus and Achilleus, soldier-martyrs, 153 f, 240

Page 271 Neumann, K. J., 9, 17, 140, 146, 233, 236

Nicomedia, Church at, sacked, 94

Non-resistance teaching of the Sermon on the Mount, 22-25; early Christian view of, 67, 115, 220, 244 f

Novatianus, De Spectaculis, 175

 

Onslow, P., 8

Origenes, deprecates military life, 52; on the 'ploughshare' prophecy, 63; on non-resistance and gentleness, 79-81; on persecution, 92 f; on the Christian refusal of military service and public office, 129-147, 223 f, 246, 254, 256, 263; military analogies and view of Old Testament wars, 165 f, 175 f; on the Jewish War of 67-71 A.D., 187 f; on the function of human law, 200 f; on the relative justification of war, 207 f, 214, 246; on prayer for the imperial armies, 210, 223; on the assassination of tyrants, 214; on the functions of executioners, 215 f; miscellaneous, 104, 115, 117, 119, 127 f, 149, 192, 196, 227

 

Pachomius, 241

Pastoral Epistles, 49, 69, 162, 196

Paul, the Apostle, 24, 49, 58 f, 68 f, 85, 90, 97, 161 ff, 171, 180, 195 f, 197, 211 ff, 221 f, 226, 234 f, 250, 252; apocryphal martyrdom of, see Acts of Paul

Paul of Samosata, 224

Paulinus of Nola, St., 261

Peace, Christian view of, 58-66

Perpetua, 226 f, 234

Peter (First), Epistle of, 69 f, 196 f

Peter, Gospel of, 185

Peter, apocryphal martyrdom of, see Acts of Peter

Philippi, gaoler of, 17, 97, 222, 226, 228

Philoromos, 155 f, 225

Phokas, martyr, 100

Phrygia, town burnt, 95, 225

Pionios, martyr, 93, 189

Plinius and the Christians of Bithynia, 58, 88, 99

Plotinus, 148 f

Polueuktes, martyr, 237

Polukarpos, 73, 92, 196

Pontius, Life of Cyprianus, 93, 167, 227

Potamiaina, 226

Prayer for armies, 134 f, 142, 209-211, 223

Pseudo-Cyprianus, Adversus Judaeos, 63, 178, 189; De Pascha Computus, 166, 187; Quod Idola Dii non sint, 189, 197; De Rebaptismate, 167

Pseudo-Justinus, Address to the Greeks, 51, 65, 106; Cohortatio, 53

Pseudo-Meliton, 64, 200

Public office, 103, 106-108, 112, 117, 128, 134, 136 f, 139, 154-157, 223-225

Pudens, 226 f, 233 f

 

Quakerism, 6-8, 13, 258

'Quattuor Coronati,' 240

Quirinus, martyr, 167

 

Ramsay, W. M., 115, 119, 127, 233, 236 f

Relativity of morality to subjective conditions ('relative justification'), 14 f, 137 f, 213 ff, 264

Ruinart, 150

 

Schell, 42

Schmidt, C., 8

Page 272 Scilli, martyrs of, 76, 195

Scullard, H. H., 116, 167, 197

Sebaste, Forty Martyrs Of, 242

Seeley, J. R., Ecce Homo, 27, 33, 38

Seleukos, soldier-martyr, 153, 240

Sergius Paulus, 97 f, 226, 228, 252

Shakespeare, quoted, 254

Sibulline Oracles, 185

Slavery, 19

Sonnenschein, E. A., 31

Stead, W. T., 145 f

Swords, the Two, 39 f

Symphorosa, 101, 241

 

Tarakhos, 94, 153, 240

Tatianus, 50, 103

Temple of Jerusalem, 20, 27, 34 f, 247

Temptation of Jesus, 26 f, 40

Tertullianus, condemns war, 51 f; on the 'ploughshare' prophecy, 62 f; on the peacefulness of Christianity, 64; on love of enemies, 78 f; on persecution, 93 f; on Christians in military service, 106, 109, 113, 115 f, 174, 234-236, 249, 255 f; 011 the Christian refusal of military service, 106-119, 245, 254, 256; use of military analogies, 165; on Old Testament wars, 174; on apocalyptic wars, 181, 183; on the Jewish War of 67-71 A.D., 185 f; on war as a punishment, 191 f; on state-coercion, 199 f; recognition of war, 206; on prayer for armies, 210; on the Christian disuse of law-courts, 223; on the 'Thundering Legion,' 230, 234; miscellaneous, 23, 84, 128 f, 138, 140, 148, 156, 173, 177, 196 f, 220, 246

Testament of our Lord, the, 120-126, 259

Thebaic Legion, the, 239

Theodorus of Tyre, martyr, 240

Theodosian Code, 257

Theodotos, Excerpts from, 164, 181

Theogenes, martyr, 260

Theophilos of Antioch, 76, 185, 191, 196, 198

Thomas, J. M. Lloyd, 31

'Thundering Legion,' the, 105, 229-231

Tolstoi, Leo, 44

Trajanus and his time, 99 f, 180, 229

Troeltsch, Ernst, 12, 25 f, 115, 141, 144, 249, 250

Typasius, 153, 167, 239

 

Veturius, 238

Victorinus, 178, 182

Victricius, 260

 

Weinel, H., 12, 141, 196, 205

Westcott, B. F., 166

Westermarck, E., 11, 243, 257

Wilson, W. E., 12

Wrath (of God), 35-37, 188, 196 f