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The Early Christian Attitude to War

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Page xvii


Names of Emperors are printed in Capitals.

Many of the dates given are conjectural or approximate. Where two figures are given, they indicate either the limits of a reign or the probable termini between which the date of an event or a composition falls.

In the case of martyrdoms, it is to be noted that the written Acta do not always date from immediately after the events they narrate. The Acta quoted however usually contain for the most part early and reliable material.

A. D.
14  Death of AUGUSTUS.
14-37  TIBERIUS.
29  Crucifixion of Jesus.
? 40  Conversion of the centurion Cornelius.
41-54  CLAUDIUS.
41  Martyrdom of James, the son of Zebedee.
47  Paul preaches to Sergius Paulus, proconsul of Cyprus.
49  Conversion of the gaoler of Philippi.
50-61  The extant Epistles of Paul.
54-68  NERO.
? 62  The Epistle of James.
64  Fire at Rome; Nero persecutes the Christians.
 The Martyrdom of Peter and Paul at Rome.
64-70  The Gospel of Mark.
The Pastoral Epistles (? of Paul), i.e. 1 and 2 Tim. and Tit.
The Epistle to the Hebrews.
The (First) Epistle of Peter.
66  Outbreak of Jewish War against Rome.
? 67  Christians of Jerusalem withdraw to Pella.
70  Jerusalem captured by the Romans.
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70-80 The Gospel of 'Matthew'
The Gospel and Acts of Luke.
? 75  The Epistle of 'Barnabas' (Egypt).
79-81  TITUS.
80-90  The Didakhe (Syria).
93  The Apocalypse of John (Asia Minor).
? 94  The (First) Epistle of Clemens of Rome to the Corinthians.
96-98  NERVA.
98-117  TRAJANUS.
100  The Vision of Isaiah (= Ascension Of Isaiah vi-xi. 40)
100-110  The Fourth Gospel (Asia Minor).
The Johannine Epistles (Asia Minor).
? 110  The Epistles (Asia Minor) and martyrdom (Rome) of Ignatius of Antioch.
? 110  The Epistle of Polukarpos of Smyrna to the Philippians.
112  The Correspondence between Plinius and Trajanus about the Christians of Bithynia.
117-138  HADRIANUS.
110-130  The apocryphal Gospel of Peter.
? 130-150  The 'Elders' cited by Eirenaios.
140  The Shepherd of Hermas (Italy).
140-141  The Apology of Aristeides (Athens).
144-154  Markion flourished (Italy).
? 150  The so-called Second Epistle of Clemens of Rome.
The so-called Second Epistle of Peter.
The Epistle to Diognetos.
153  The Apology of Justinus (usually reckoned as two) (Rome).
? 154 (before 165)  Tatianus' Address to the Greeks (Rome).
155  The martyrdom of Polukarpos at Smyrna.
155-160  Justinus' Dialogue with Truphon the Jew.
Justinus' On the Resurrection.
? 160  The apocryphal Acts of John.
160-170  The apocryphal Acts of Paul.
161-169  The martyrdom of Karpos, Papules, and Agathonike at Pergamus.
163-167  The martyrdom of Justinus and his companions at Rome.
? 170  The Excerpta ex Theodoto.
173 or 174  The incident of the so-called 'Thundering Legion.'
177-180  Athenagoras' Legatio pro Christianis (? Athens) and De Resurrectione.
Celsus' True Discourse.
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177-178  Persecution at Lugdunum (Lyons) in Gaul.
180-192  COMMODUS.
180 (July)  Martyrdom of the Scillitans.
? 181  Theophilos of Antioch's Ad Autolycum.
180-195 Martyrdom of the Senator Apollonius (Rome).
181-189  Eirenaios' Adversus Haereses (Lyons).
Clemens of Alexandria's Logos Protrepticus.
? 190  Eirenaios' Proof of the Apostolic Preaching (quoted in footnotes as Demonstr) (Lyons).
170-200  Pseudo-Justinus' Oration to the Greeks.
193  PERTINAX, etc.
195  Julius Africanus serves under Severus in an expedition to Osrhoene.
197  Tertullianus' Ad Martyres.
Tertullianus' Ad Nationes.
Tertullianus' Apologeticus.
198-203  Tertullianus' De Spectaculis.
Tertullianus' De Cultu Feminarum.
Tertullianus' De Baptismo.
Tertullianus' De Paenitentia.
Tertullianus' De Fatientia.
Tertullianus' De Oratione.
Tertullianus' De Idololatria.
Tertullianus' De Praescriptione Haereticorum.
Tertullianus' Adversus Judaeos.
190-210  Clemens' Stromateis.
190-200  Clemens' Paedagogus.
? 200  Pseudo-Justinus' Cohortatio ad Gentiles.
200  Hippolutos' De Antichristo.
200-210  Hippolutos' treatise against Noetos.
203  Hippolutos' Commentary on Daniel.
203  Martyrdom of Perpetua, etc., at Carthago.
? 205  Clemens' Quis Dives Salvetur?
204-206  Tertullianus' De Exhortatione Castitatis.
207  Tertullianus becomes a Montanist.
200-220  The apocryphal Acts of Peter.
208-213 Tertullianus' Adversus Marcionem.
Tertullianus' De Anima.
210  Tertullianus' De Pallio.
211-217  CARACALLA and (211-212) GETA.
211  Tertullianus' De Resurrectione Carnis.
Tertullianus' De Corona Militis.
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211-212 Tertullianus' De Fuga in Persecutione.
212  Tertullianus' Ad Scapulam.
213  Tertullianus' Scorpiace.
? 215  Pseudo-Meliton's Apology to Antoninus (i.e. Caracalla) (in Syriac).
217-218  MACRINUS.
218  Tertullianus' De Monogamia.
Tertullianus' De Jejunio.
? 220  Hippolutos' Canons.
220  Tertullianus' De Pudicitia.
Julius Africanus' Kestoi.
? 223  The Bardesanic Book of the Laws of the Countries (otherwise called The Dialogue on Fate).
226  Hippolutos' Refutatio omnium haeresium.
228-230  Origenes' De Principiis.
233  Origenes' De Oratione.
235  Origenes' Homilies on Judges.
Origenes' Exhortation to Martyrdom.
238  GORDIANUS I, II, etc.
230-250  The apocryphal Acts of Thomas.
238-248  Minucius FeIix' Octavius.
241  Gregorios Thaumatourgos' Panegyric on Origenes.
243  Pseudo-Cyprianus' De Pascha Computus.
After 244  Origenes' Homilies on Numbers.
Origenes' Commentary on Romans.
247  Cyprianus' Ad Donatum.
Cyprianus' Ad Quirinum Testimoniorum adversus Judaeos libri tres.
247-265  Dionusios of Alexandria's letters and other writings.
248  Origenes' Contra Celsum.
249  Cyprianus' De Habitu Virginum.
249-251  DECIUS. Persecution.
250-258  Cyprianus' Epistles.
249-250 Origenes' Homilies on Joshua.
250  Cyprianus' De Laude Martyrii.
? 250  Commodianus' Instructiones.
Commodianus' Carmen Apologeticum.
Didaskalia (Syria).
250  Martyrdom of Pionios at Smyrna.
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Trial of Achatius at Antioch in Pisidia.
251  Cyprianus' De Lapsis.
252  Cyprianus' Ad Demetrianum.
Cyprianus' De Dominica Oratione.
253-260  VALERIANUS.
253-254  Cyprianus' De Mortalitate.
254  Gregorios Thaumatourgos' Canonical Epistle (Pontus).
? 255  Novatianus' (?) De Spectaculis.
Pseudo-Cyprianus' Quod ldola Dii non sint.
256  Pseudo-Cyprianus' De Rebaptismate.
Cyprianus' De Bono Patientiae.
Cyprianus' De Zelo et Livore.
257  Cyprianus' Ad Fortunatum de exhortatione martyrii.
258  Martyrdom of Cyprianus (Carthago).
259 (Jan.) Martyrdom of Fructuosus (Spain).
(May)  Martyrdom of Montanus and Lucius (Carthago).
Martyrdom of Marianus and Jacobus (Numidia).
? 259  Martyrdom of Codratius.
Pontius' Life of Cyprianus.
Pseudo-Cyprianus' Adversus Judaeos.
260-268  GALLIENUS. Edict of Toleration
260  Martyrdom of the soldier Marinus at Caesarea.
265  The Periodoi Petrou, which are lost, but of which the Clementine Homilies and the Clementine Recognitions are later abridgements, and to which the so-called Epistles of Clemens and Peter to James were originally prefixed.
268-270  CLAUDIUS II.
270-275  AURELIANUS.
272  Paulus of Samosata ejected from the see of Antioch by the secular power.
275-284  TACITUS, etc., etc.
284-305 DIOCLETIANUS and (286-305) MAXIMIANUS.
270-300  Methodios' Symposium (Olympus in Lycia).
Writings of Victorinus, bishop of Petavium (Petau).
293  Constantius Chlorus and Galerius made Caesars.
295  Martyrdom of Maximilianus at Teveste in Numidia for refusing to be a soldier.
298 Martyrdom of Marcellus and Cassianus at Tingi in Mauretania.
? 300 The Synod of Illiberis (Elvira in Spain).
Galerius tries to purge the army of Christians.
303 Outbreak of the Great Persecution.
? Martyrdom of the veteran Julius in Moesia.
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304 (April) Martyrdom of Pollio in Pannonia.
(Oct.)  Martyrdom of Tarakhos, etc., in Cilicia.
305 Diocletianus and Maximianus resign, leaving GALERIUS and CONSTANTIUS as Augusti, and Maximinus Daza and Severus as Caesars.
305 or later (Jan.) Martyrdom of Typasius in Mauretania.
305 Lactantius' De Opificio Dei.
Lactantius' Divinae Institutiones.
Lactantius' De Ira Dei.
306 Constantius dies at York: Constantinus becomes Caesar in the West. Maxentius supplants Severus in Italy.
304-310 Arnobius' Adversus Nationes.
300-313 'Adamantios' Dialogus de Recta Fidei.
Eusebios' Praeparatio Evangelica.
307 LICINIUS made Augustus by Galerius.
CONSTANTINUS assumes the title of Augustus.
309 (Jan.) Martyrdom of Quirinus in Pannonia.
310 MAXIMINUS DAZA becomes Augustus.
311 Death of Galerius.
312 (Jan.) Martyrdom of Lucianus at Nicomedia.
300-325 ? The Egyptian Church-Order.
312 Constantinus adopts the sign of the cross in his campaign against Maxentius.
Maxentius defeated at the Milvian Bridge, and slain.
313 (Jan.) Constantinus and Licinius issue the Edict of Milan.
Licinius defeats Maximinus Daza in Thrace and publishes the Edict of Milan at Nicomedia. Suicide of Daza at Tarsus.
312-314 Eusebios completes his Church History (including The Martyrs of Palestine).
Lactantius inserts the panegyrical addresses to Constantinus in his Divinae Institutiones (I i. 13-16, VII xxvi. 11-17, and four brief apostrophes in 11 i. 2, IV i. 1, V i. I, VI iii. 1).
314 Lactantius' De Morte Persecutorum.
Synod of Arelate (Arles) in Gaul.
320 f. Licinius persecutes the Christians.
Martyrdom of Theogenes and Marcellinus, and of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste.
323 Licinius defeated by Constantinus, captured, and shortly afterwards slain.
CONSTANTINUS sole Emperor.
325 Council of Nicaea.
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330-340 Acta Disputationis Archelai.
336 St. Martinus of Tours leaves the army.
337-350 CONSTANS.
337-339 Eusebios' Life of Constantinus.
? 350 Letter of Athanasios to Ammonios (Amun) pronouncing slaughter in warfare legal (Migne PG xxvi. 1169 f, 1173).
361-363 JULIANUS, the last pagan Emperor.
363 ff JOVIANUS, etc., etc., etc.
363 Gregorios of Nazianzus complains of the character of soldiers.
350-375 The Testament of Our Lord (Syria or S. E. Asia Minor).
? St. Victricius (later archbishop of Rouen) leaves the army.
374 Basilios the Great recommends that soldiers who have shed blood should abstain from communion for three years.
375-400 The Apostolic Constitutions.
386-387 Ambrosius of Milan declares the rightfulness of military service.
390 Johannes Khrusostomos (Chrysostom) complains of the character of soldiers.
400 Paulinus of Nola persuades a friend to leave the army.
Augustinus argues for the legitimacy of military service for Christians in Contra Faustum Manichaeum.
412 and in a letter to Marcellinus.
416 Non-Christians forbidden by law to serve in the army.
418 Augustinus' letter to Bonifacius.