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The Early Christian Attitude to War

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[In the following list, Cadoux sometimes included information about several items in this list in brackets out to the right. This is too messy to reproduce literally and cleanly. Bracketed sections are indicated by a line with dashes ("---") before and after the bracketed section, with the bracketed information included just before the second dashed line in brackets "{" and "}"].


Ac  The Book of the Acts of the Apostles (70-80 A.D.).
Acta Disput Achat The Acta Disputationis Achatii (250 A.D.) (in Gebhardt, q.v.).
Acts of Apollonius   (180-185 A.D.) (in Conybeare and Gebhardt).
Acts of John (? 160 A D.)
Acts of Peter   (200-220 A.D.)
Acts of Thomas (230-250 A.D.)
{The section is given, and then, in brackets, the vol. and p. in Lipsius and Bonnet (q.v.) and the page in Pick (q.v.)}
Adamant The anonymous Dialogus de Recta Fidei (300-313 A.D.), in which the chief speaker is Adamantios (? = Origenes).
Anal Bolland Analecta Bollandiana (a selection of martyr-acts). Paris and Brussels, 1882 ff.
ANCL  The Ante-Nicene Christian Library: translations of the writings of the Fathers down to A.D. 325. Edited by Roberts and Donaldson. Edinburgh, 1867-1872.
Ap  The Apocalypse of John (about 93 A.D.).
Arist  Aristeides' Apology (about 140 A.D.). The section is given, and, in brackets, the page in Texts and Studies I 1.
Arnob  Arnobius' Adversus Nationes (304-310 A.D.).
Athenag Legat  Athenagoras' Legatio pro Christianis
Athenag Res Athenagoras' De Resurrectione
{(177-180 A. D.) The section is given and, in brackets, the column in Migne PG vi. }
Barn  The (so-called) Epistle of Barnabas (? 75 A.D.).
B.-Baker ICW   The Influence of Christianity on War, by J. F. Bethune-Baker. Cambridge, 1888.
Bestmann  Geschichte der christlichen Sitte, by H. J. Bestmann. 2 vols. Nördlingen 1880,1885.


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Bigelmair  Die Beteiligung der Christen am öffentlichen Leben in vorkonstantinischer Zeit, by Andreas Bigelmair. Munich, 1902.
Blunt  The Apologies of Justin Martyr, by A. W. F. Blunt (Cambridge Patristic Texts). Cam bridge, 1911.
Can Arel  Canons of the Synod of Arelate (Arles) (314 A.D.). (in Hefele, q.v.).
Can Illib  Canons of the Synod of Illiberis (Elvira) (? 300 A.D.) (in Hefele and Dale, q.v.).
1 Clem The (so-called) first Epistle of Clemens of Rome to the Corinthians (about 94 A.D.).
2 Clem  The (so-called second) Epistle of Clemens of Rome (about 150 A.D.).
Clem Ep Jas   The so-called Epistle of Clemens to James, prefixed to the Clementine Homilies (265 A.D.).
Clem Hom   The Clementine Homilies (see 265 A.D. in the Chronological Table).
Clem Paed   Clemens of Alexandria's Paedagogus (190-200 A.D.).
Clem Protr Clemens of Alexandria's Logos Protrepticus (180- 190 A. D.).
Clem Quis Dives   Clemens of Alexandria's Quis Dives Salvetur? (circ. 205 A.D.).
Clem Recog   The Clementine Recognitions (see 265 A.D. in the Chronological Table).
Clem Strom Clemens of Alexandria's Stromateis (190-210 A. D.).
Col  Paul's Epistle to the Colossians.
Commod Carm Commodianus' Carmen Apologeticum
Commod Instr Commodianus' Instructiones
{(250 A. D.).}
Conybeare  The Apology and Acts of Apollonius, and other Monuments of Early Christianity, by F. C. Conybeare. London, 1894.
Cooper and Maclean The Testament of our Lord: translated into English from the Syriac, by Jas. Cooper and A. J. Maclean. Edinburgh, 1902.
1 Cor, 2 Cor  Paul's First and Second Epistles to the Corinthians.
Cunningham  Christianity and Politics, by Rev. W. Cunningham, Archdeacon of Ely. London, 1916.
Cypr Bon Pat   Cyprianus' De Bono Patientiae (256 A.D.).
Cypr Demetr  Ad Demetrianum (252 A.D).
Cypr Dom Orat   De Dominica Oratione (252 A.D.).
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Cypr Donat   Cyprianus' Ad Donatum (247 A.D.).
Cypr Ep Cyprianus' Epistles (250-258 A.D.). The first no. is that of the Epistle in Hartel's edition, the second (in brackets) that of the same Epistle in ANCL viii, the third that of the paragraph.
Cypr Fort Cyprianus' Ad Fortunatum de exhortatione martyrii (257 A.D.).
Cypr Hab Virg   Cyprianus' De Habitu Virginum (249 A.D.).
Cypr Lap   Cyprianus' De Lapsis (251 A.D.).
Cypr Laud   Cyprianus' De Laude Martyrii (250 A.D.).
Cypr Mort   Cyprianus' De Mortalitate (253-254 A.D.).
Cypr Test   Cyprianus' Testimonia adversus Judaeos (ad Quirinum) (247 A.D.).
Cypr Zel Liv Cyprianus' De Zelo et Livore (256 A.D.).
Dale  The Synod of Elvira, and Christian Life in the fourth century: a historical essay, by A. W. W. Dale. London, 1882.
DCA  A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, edited by W. Smith and S. Cheetham. 2 vols. London, 1875, 1880.
DCB   A Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects, and Doctrines, edited by W. Smith and H. Wace. 4 vols. London, 1877-1887.
De Jong  Dienstweigering bij de oude Christenen (Refusal of [military] service among the early Christians), by K. H. E. De Jong. Leiden, 1905.
Didask Didaskalia (in Funk's Didascalia et Constitutiones Apostolorum, vol. i, Paderborn, 1905) (circ. 250 A.D.).
Diog   The Epistle to Diognetos (? 150 A.D.).
Dion Alex  Dionusios of Alexandria (bishop, 247-265 A.D.).
Eiren  Eirenaios' (Irenaeus') Adversus Haereses (181-189 A.D.). The bk. and ch. according to Massuet's edition are given, and then, in brackets, the vol. and p. in Harvey's (Cambridge, 1857).
Eiren Demonstr   Eirenaios' work On the Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching (about 190 A.D.). I quote the section (and page) in the German version made from the Armenian by Ter-Mekerttschian and Ter-Minassiantz and edited by Harnack (Des heiligen Irenäus Schrift zum Erweise der apostolischen Verkündigung, Leipzig, 1908, 2nd edn.).
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Eiren frag   The fragments of Eirenaios (no. and p. in Harvey).
Eph  Paul's 'Epistle to the Ephesians.'
Eus HE   Eusebios' Historia Ecclesiastica (finished about 314 A.D.).
Eus Mart Eusebios' Martyrs of Palestine (at end of HE VII).
Eus PE   Eusebios' Praeparatio Evangelica (300-313 A.D.) (sections given as per Gifford's edition, Oxford, 1903)
Eus Vit Const   Eusebios' Life Of Constantinus (337-340 A.D.).
Excerp Theod   Excerpta ex Theodoto (? 170 A.D.) found with the 8th bk. of Clem Strom.
Feltoe  The letters and other remains of Dionysius of Alexandria, by C. L. Feltoe (Cambridge Patristic Texts). Cambridge, 1904.
Gal  The Epistle of Paul to the Galatians.
Gebhardt  Acta Martyrum Selecta. Ausgewählte Märtyrer-acten und andere Urkunden aus der Verfolgungszeit der christlichen Kirche, edited by O. von Gebhardt. Berlin, 1902.
Greg Thaum Paneg Gregorios Thaumatourgos' Panegyric on Origenes (241 A.D.).
Greg Thaum Ep Can   Gregorios Thaumatourgos' Epistola Canonica (254 A.D.).
Guignebert  Tertullien: étude sur ses sentiments à l'égard de l'empire et de la société civile, by C. Guignebert. Paris, 1901.
Harnack C   Die Chronologie der altchristlichen Litteratur bis Eusebius, by A. Harnack. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1897, 1904.
Harnack MC   Militia Christi: die christliche Religion und der Soldatenstand in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten, by A. Harnack. Tubingen, 1905.
Harnack ME  The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the first three centuries, by A. Harnack. London, 1908. ET from 3rd German edition of 1906.
HDB  A Dictionary of the Bible, edited by J. Hastings. 5 vols. Edinburgh, 1898-1909.
Heb  The Epistle to the Hebrews.
Hefele  A History of the Christian Councils from the original documents to the close of the Council of Nicaea A.D. 325, by C. J. Hefele. Edinburgh, 1872. ET from the German.
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Herm M   Mandata
Herm S   Similitudines
Herm Vis   Visiones
{parts of the Shepherd of Hermas  (140 A.D.).}
Hipp Ant   Hippolutos' De Antichristo (200 A.D.).
Hipp Dan   Hippolutos' Commentary on Daniel (203 A.D.).
Hipp Noet Hippolutos' treatise against Noetes (200-210 A.D.)
Horner  The Statutes of the Apostles or Canones Ecclesiastici, by G. Horner. London, 1904.
Ig E Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians
Ig M   Ignatius' Epistle to the Magnesians
Ig P   Ignatius' Epistle to Polukarpos
Ig Ph   Ignatius' Epistle to the Philadelphians
Ig R   Ignatius' Epistle to the Romans
Ig S Ignatius' Epistle to the Smyrnaeans
Ig T   Ignatius' Epistle to the Trallians
{(? 110 A. D.) }
Jas  The Epistle of James
Just 1 Ap  

The first Apology of Justinus

Just 2 Ap   The second Apology of Justinus
{(153 A.D.).}
Just Dial Justinus' Dialogue with Truphon the Jew (155-160 A.D ).
Just Res Justinus' fragment De Resurrectione
{The col. in Migne PG vi is added in brackets.}
Karp   Acta Carpi, Papyli, et Agathonices (161-169 A.D.) (in Gebhardt).
Krüger  History of early Christian Literature in the first three centuries, by G. Krüger. New York, 1897. ET from the German.
Lact Inst   Lactantius' Divinae Institutiones
Lact Ira Dei  

Lactantius' De Ira Dei

{ (circ. 305 A. D.)}
Lact Mort Pers   Lactantius' De Morte Persecutorum (314 A.D.).
Lact Opif Dei   Lactantius' De Opificio Dei (circ. 305 A.D.).
Lecky  History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlemagne, by W. E. H. Lecky. London (1869), 1913.
Lightfoot AF   The Apostolic Fathers, edited by J. B. Lightfoot. 5 vols. London (1885), 1889, 1890.
Lipsius and Bonnet  Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha. 3 vols. Leipzig, 1891-1903
Maclean  The Ancient Church Orders, by A. J. Maclean. Cambridge, 1910.
Method Symp   Methodios' Symposium (270-300 A.D.).
Migne PG, PL   Patrologia Graeca, Patrologia Latina, edited by J.-P. Migne.
Minuc  Minucius Felix' Octavius (238-248 A.D.).
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M Lugd   The Epistle of the Church of Lugdunurn (Lyons), describing the persecution of 177-178 A.D. (in Eus HE V i-iii).
Moffatt INT   Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament, by J. Moffatt. Edinburgh, 1912 (2nd edn.).
M Paul   The Martyrdom of Paul, being part of the apocryphal Acts of Paul (160-170 A.D.) (in Lipsius and Bonnet).
M Petr  The Martyrdom of Peter, being part of the apocryphal Acts of Peter (200-220 A.D.) (in Lipsius and Bonnet).
{ for notation see above, under Acts of John, etc. }
M Pionii  The Martyrdom Of Pionios (250 A.D.) (in Gebhardt).
M Pol   The Martyrdom of Polukarpos (155 A.D.) (in Gebhardt and the Apostolic Fathers).
Neumann Der römische Staat und die allgemeine Kirche bis auf Diocletian, by K. J. Neumann. Leipzig, 1890.
Novat Spect   Novatianus' (?) De Spectaculis (255 A.D.).
Orig Cels   Origenes' Contra Celsum (248 A.D.).
Orig Comm, Hom, etc. Origenes' Commentaries and Homilies. The vol. and column in Migne PG are added to each reference.
Orig Mart   Origenes' De Exhortatione Martyrii (235 A.D.).
Orig Orat Origenes' De Oratione (233 A.D.).
Orig Princ   Origenes' De Principiis (228-230 A.D.).
Perpet  Passio Sanctae Perpetuae (203 A.D.) (in Texts and Studies I 2).
Phil  Paul's Epistle to the Philippians.
Pick  The Apocryphal Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Andrew, and Thomas, by B. Pick. Chicago, 1909.
Pol  The Epistle of Polukarpos to the Philippians (circ. 110 A.D.).
Pont  Vit Cypr Pontius' Life of Cyprianus (259 A.D.).
P Scill 

Passio Sanctorum Scillitanorum (180 A.D.). The no. is that of the page in Texts and Studies I 2.

Ps-Cypr Jud Pseudo-Cyprianus' Adversus Judaeos (? 259 A.D.).
Ps-Cypr Pasch   Pseudo-Cyprianus' De Pascha Computus (243 A.D.)
Ps-Cypr Quod Idola   Pseudo-Cyprianus' Quod Idola Dii non sint (? 255 A.D.).
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Ps-Cypr Rebapt  Pseudo-Cyprianus' De Rebaptismate (256 A.D.).
Ps-Just Cohort Pseudo-Justinus' Cohortatio ad Gentiles (?200 A.D.)
Ps-Just Orat Pseudo-Justinus' Oratio ad Gentiles (170-200 A. D.)
Ps-Mel  Pseudo-Meliton's Apology (in Syriac) (215 A.D.). The nos. are those of the section in Otto's version, and the p. in ANCL xxiib.
Robinson and James  The Gospel according to Peter, and the Revelation of Peter, etc. By J. A. Robinson and M. R. James. London, 1892.
Routh  Reliquiae Sacrae, edited by M. J. Routh. 5 vols. Oxford, 1846-1848 (2nd edn.).
Ruinart  Acta Martyrum P. Theodorici Ruinart opera ac studio collecta selecta atque illustrata (Paris, 1689). Ratisbon, 1859.
Scullard  Early Christian Ethics in the West, by H. H. Scullard. London, 1907
Tat  Tatianus' Oratio ad Graecos (? 154-165 A.D.). The column in Migne PG vi is added in brackets.
Tert Anim   Tertullianus' De Anima (208-213 A.D.)
Tert Apol Tertullianus' Apologeticus (197 A.D.).
Tert Bapt Tertullianus' De Baptismo (198- 203 A.D.).
Tert Cor   Tertullianus' De Corona Militis (211 A.D.).
Tert Cul Tertullianus' De Cultu Feminarum (198-203 A.D.).
Tert Cast Tertullianus' De exhortatione Castitatis (204-206 A.D.).
Tert Fug Tertullianus' De Fuga (211-212 A.D.).
Tert Idol Tertullianus' De Idololatria (198-203 A.D.).
Tert Jejun

Tertullianus' De Jejunio (218 A.D.).

Tert Jud Tertullianus' Adversus Judaeos (198-203 A.D.).
Tert Marc   Tertullianus' Adversus Marcionem (208-213 A.D.).
Tert Mart Tertullianus' Ad Martyres (197 A.D.).
Tert Monog Tertullianus' De Monogamia (218 A.D.).
Tert Nat Tertullianus' Ad Nationes (197 A.D.).
Tert Orat Tertullianus' De Oratione (198-203 A.D.).
Tert Paen Tertullianus' De Paenitentia (198-203 A.D.).
Tert Pall Tertullianus' De Pallio (210 A.D.).
{ The vol. and col. in Migne PL are added in brackets to each reference. }
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Tert Pat Tertullianus' De Patientia (198-203 A.D.).
Tert Praescr Tertullianus' De Praescriptione Hereticorum (198-203A.D.).
Tert Pudic Tertullianus' De Pudicitia (220 A.D.).
Tert Res Tertullianus' De Resurrectione Carnis (211 A.D.).
Tert Scap Tertullianus' Ad Scapulam (212 A.D.).
Tert Scorp Tertullianus' Scorpiace (213 A.D.).
Tert Spect Tertullianus' De Spectaculis (198-203 A.D.).
Tert Virg Tertullianus' De Virginibus velandis (204-206 A.D.).
{ The vol. and col. in Migne PL are added in brackets to each reference. }
1 Th, 2 Th  Paul's first and second letters to the Thessalonians.
Theoph  Theophilos of Antioch's Ad Autolycum (181 A.D.)
TroeItsch  Die Soziallehren der christlichen Kirchen und Gruppen. Erste Hälfte, by Ernst Troeltsch. Tübingen, 1912.
Weinel  Die Stellung des Urchristentums zum Staat by H. Weinel. Tübingen, 1908.

ET = English Translation.

f (ff) = ' and the following page(s) verse(s) ', etc.

frag = fragment.

n = footnote.

Roman and arabic numerals generally refer respectively to book (sometimes chapter) and section in the case of an ancient work, and to volume and page in the case of a modern work.

Bracketed words in passages translated from other languages are those inserted in order to bring out the sense or make good English.